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You may have come accross words and meanings on our website which you do not always understand. We cannot blame you, we tend to get overly nerdy and exact about footwear details. This is why we created a VICO Lexicon (the vocabulary of a language or subject) for you. This is our reference page containing an alphabetical list of words with information about them, which you can come accross on our website.


A narrow strip of leather fabric or other material attached round the edge of a section.

Blake stiching

In shoes constructed with Blake stitching, the upper component of the shoe is stretched around the insole, and then a single stitch binds the outsole, insole, and upper together this allow more flexibility and lighter weight. We applied this stitching method on our more dressed styles like the Brera, Burano, Belgravia and Greenwhich.


An upper section, which follows the top edge of the quarters.


A reinforcement placed between outside and lining at the back of the shoe to prevent the upper collapsing and the heel moving. Also called: back counter stiffener.


On each pair of VICO shoes we apply a natural layer of cork by hand. Cork is harvested from living cork trees, with the cork itself coming from just under the upper bark layer. The cork industry is generally regarded as environmentally friendly and sustainable because the cork tree is not cut down; only the bark is stripped to harvest the cork and the tree continues to live and grow.

Cutting Dies

Used to cut out shoe parts. These steel cutting dies look just like cookie cutters. Each die is coated with rust proof paint and marked with the shoe size and model number. Making a shoe requires numerous cutting dies.


A high or low shoe in which the quarters are stitched on top of the vamp, which allow the eyelet tabs to be slightly open when laced, due to not being connected to the instep.

Embossed Leather

Leather that is carved or printed with some type of design, whether to represent the natural grain of the animal's hide or as a decorative design.


Ethyl Vinyl Acetate, a non-toxic synthetic compound that produces a material that is "rubber-like" in softness and flexibility. EVA is considered environmentally friendly in that it does not use chlorine in its production and can be recycled into various products. In our case we use EVA to create lightweight and flexible sole components.


An eyelet is a hole that is punched into the shoe's upper that allows shoelaces to be threaded through. Eyelets are commonly reinforced with a metal or grommet that covers the holes and prevents fraying.

Eyelet branded

The function of an eyelet (see above) combined with our logo. Functionality and design combined.


The throat of the shoe, the area around the lace opening. It can feature webbings or eyelets.


Part of the shoe bottom, visible inside, on which the foot rests. The footbed accomplishes many purposes such as, including daily wear comfort, extra cushioning and helps to deal with differences in the natural shape of the foot during standing or walking.


The natural appearance of the grain-side or outer surface of the material used.


A piece of wood, metal or synthetic material roughly following the shape of the foot and acting as a form on which the shoe is made.


The inside layer of a shoe upper made from: fabric, leather, or other material. General used to reinforce or improve the appearance of any shoe with an extra layer.


The layer in between the outsole and the footbed, typically added there for shock absorption. On dressed styles (using Blake construction) we added additional EVA material for shock absorption.

Molded sole

The (out)sole is the layer in direct contact with the ground. A mould is a hollow container that you pour rubber into. When the liquid becomes solid, it takes the same shape as the mould and in our case the shape of our moulded branded VICO soles.


A leather buffed on the grain side and having a light velvet appearance and feel.


A low shoe for men or women in which the vamp overlays the quarters and these meet at the front and are laced across. Also termed as "closed lacing" or "V-shape lacing".

Padded foam

To reinforce and decorate part of an upper by putting a resilient padding between outside and lining and stitching through so as to bring the pattern up into relief.


Vegetable tanned leather develops patina and ages richly over time. Environmental factors like light, air and skin oils also start the patina process. The leather will darken or caramelise in colour. Patinas can provide a protective covering to materials that would otherwise be damaged by corrosion or weathering.


A section of the required shape made of cardboard bound with brass, iron or plastic and produced in the required set of sizes, which is used for cutting out the shoe material.


To decorate an upper with a series of or regularly spaced holes made either one after another by a perforating machine or all together by a perforating die.

Raw Edge

The edge of an upper section, which is neither folded nor serrated but remains as it was except that it may be skived, slightly seared coloured and burnished.


A transverse section across the forepart of an upper, giving the shoe the necessary fit at the instep, often with ornamental cut-outs.


This is the process used in leather crafting to reduce the thickness of leather, especially in areas that are to be bent or folded and which must be pliable without becoming weakened. Skiving is also used when two edges of leather are to be joined, so as to keep the overlapping area from becoming unnecessarily bulky.


Suede is made from the underside of the animal skin, which is soft and pliable. This material is made either by simply turning the leather upside down so the suede side faces up, or when the leather is split, and the top grain is taken away, leaving only the soft underside, which is now on both sides. On suede oil and waxed finishes can be applied.

Toe reinforcement

A hard reinforcement placed under the toe-end of the upper during lasting. It is intended to protect the toes and give a good appearance and firmness to this part of the shoe.


The part of the upper (outside), which covers the forepart of the foot.

Vamp Edge

The lower front edge of the quarter, which is stitched to the vamp.

Vegetal Tanned Leather

Vegetable tanning is a pure and natural way to process the hides without using harmful chemicals. The process is used in order to stabilise the skins and to be able to process the resulting leather. It is a traditional, artisanal process that takes advantage of the tannic acids naturally found in some plants, by using the barks, branches, leaves or even some fruits in some specific techniques.



EU 40 41 42 43 44 45 46
US 7.5 8.5 9 10 11 11.5 12
UK 6.5 7.5 8 9 10 10.5 11
JAP 25.5 26.5 27 28 28.5 29.5 30


EU 36 37 38 39 40 41
US 6 6.5 7.5 8.5 9 9.5
UK 3.5 4 5 6 6.5 7
JAP 22 22.5 23.5 24.5 25 25.5